Ijen Crater is on the island of Java, located on the border of Banyuwangi and Bondowoso, Ijen Crater has 2 stunning natural scenery. The first is a rare natural phenomenon that there are only 2 in the world, namely blu fire which only exists in 2 countries in Indonesia and the mainland of ice (Europe). Active solfatara which emits hot and flammable sulfur gas. It lights up an oxygen-rich compilation on Earth and burns with a blue flame. Some gases condense in the atmosphere to produce a stream of liquid sulfur which is also burned with a blue electric flame. Flames are hard to see during the day but light up the landscape at night.
The second you will be presented with a view of the bluish green caldera that stretches one kilometer wide, the unique color of the water is shattered with extreme acidity and high concentrations of dissolved metals. This is the largest highly acidic lake in the world with a measured pH as low as 0.5. The cause of acidity is the flow of hydrothermal air containing gases from the hot space below

Sulfur mining in the Ijen crater is carried out by means of carrying the sulfur with only makeshift tools, with iron bars and 2 wagons, not only acquiring sulfur miners must be traversed the road which is quite extreme to walk through a very steep caldera wall. Miners do one to three times a day carrying 200 kg of sulfur, sulfur collectors pay miners to pay based on the weight they give to collectors, sulfur miners only rely on the Ijen crater on average.
Gunung Penambang The pipe used to drain the gas produced by a lot of ventilation and direct them to an area where their sulfur spills into a flat work area. This makes it more efficient and safer for miners.
Ijen Crater is one of the locations where people are still mining in the traditional way. At present, most of the world’s sulfur is made as a by-product of oil and natural gas aids. Nearly 70 thousand metric tons of sulfur are released by this method. A place to pay low and small local demand for native sulfur supports community mining in Ijen Crater.


As explained earlier about the use of sulfur or sulfur which is quite widely carried out in Indonesia in various large industries such as chemical industry manufacturing sulfuric acid, industrial sugar, industrial bans, paint industry, rubber industry, textile industry, lighters industry, explosives, factories paper, and so on. The biggest use of sulfur is around 78% for the manufacture of sulfuric acid. As we know, sulfuric acid is a very important material for the progress of a country’s industry. Every industry always needs sulfuric acid as a solvent, providing an acidic atmosphere, as a reagent, and so on. Thus, the greater the use of sulfuric acid in a country, the more advanced a country’s industry will be because sulfuric acid is a good indicator of the industrial strength of a country. We can conclude indirectly, the more sulfur needs to meet the consumption of sulfuric acid.


In 1796 residents around Banyuwangi heard a roar accompanied by a thump of a cannon and accompanied by an earthquake. ijen crater for the first time erupted, and considered a freactive eruption. in 1817 January 16 Residents around Banyuwangi heard a tremendous roar like a cannon boom, accompanied by an earthquake. On January 15 a mud flood occurred towards Banyuwangi, (Junghuhn, 1853, p.1022), while Taverne (1926, p. 102) suspected the possibility of the eruption in 1817, most of the lake’s water was channeled by K. Banyupait. In 1917 Taverne (1926, p. 102) writes that at that time the lake water looked boiling mixed with mud and steam sometimes
the eruption occurred in the crater lake, mud was thrown up to 8-10 m above the water level. The same thing happened again on March 7-14. Neuman Van Padang (1951, p 158), considered it an eruption on the crater lake, and a phreatic eruption on February 25 and March 13. In 1936 Neuman van Padang (1936, p. 10 and 1951, p. 158), considered November 5-25 phreatic eruptions and eruptions in crater lakes, producing lava as in 1796 and 1817. Human casualties did not exist. In 1952 On April 22 at 6.30, there was a smoke eruption as high as 1 km and the sound of an avalanche was heard from Sempol. Inside the crater there was a mud eruption as high as 7 m, almost the same as the 1936 eruption event. Victims were absent. (Hadikusumo, 1950 – 1957, p. 184). In 1962 On April 13, in the middle of the surface of Ijen Crater Lake, a gas blast occurred in two places, each with a diameter of about 10 m. and on April 18 at 07.42 a water storm occurred in the northern part of the crater lake about 6 m in diameter, then the water boasting increased to 15-20 m. At 12:15 this boasting of water sprayed water as high as about 10 m. The color of the lake water which was originally light green turned whitish green. In 1976 October 30, at 09.44, there appeared to be boasting water at two places near Silenong for 30 minutes. In 1991, March 15, 21 and 22, water boasted about 5 m in diameter accompanied by a change in the color of crater water from light green to brown. According to the sulfur miners, gas eruptions as high as 25 – 50 m at high speeds. This gibberish was blemished by a seismograph in the form of a continuous earthquake remake from March 16-25, 1991. In 1993 On 3 hours 08.45 a phreatic eruption occurred in the middle of the lake recovering strong pressure and loud sound with bursts as high as 75 m, the color of water from whitish green turned brown and the surface of the lake became a problem. On July 4, at 08.35 a phreatic eruption was marked by spitting out air as high as about 35 m. On July 7 at 02:15 a phreatic eruption was heard which was quite loud and heard as far as 1 km. On August 1 at 16:35, a phreatic eruption was heard and the eruption was heard up to 1 km. Let this be preceded by an earthquake felt past the peak. The blob immediately thick white with strong pressure seen reaching a height of about 500 m. From 1999 June 28 to July 28 there was an increase in crater lake activity marked by an increase in crater lake air temperature reaching 46 ° C (July 3) and at the same time solfatara temperatures 1, 4 and 5 respectively 198 ° C , 176 and 168 ° C. On July 8 there was a decrease in the temperature of crater lake water at the same location to 40 ° C while solfatara temperatures increased to 210, 221 and 207 ° C. respectively in 2000 On June 6, 2000 an increase in activity which is marked by an increase in the temperature of the Ijen Crater lake to reach 55 ° C and a phreatic eruption. From the seismic data taken the number of additional earthquakes, also occurred volcanic earthquakes and tremors which then increased at the end of July. Immediately high above the crater which was originally 25 m, at the end of mid-September rose to 50 m above the crater. A week later activity decreased, among others, marked by the high speed as soon as it returned to 25 m and the crater lake water fell to less than 40 ° C. In 2001 On January 8, an increase in volcanic activity was deferred by the presence of boiling lake water such as boiling, the smell of solfatara gas was very sharp, the sound of a loud blaser and white smoke with strong assistance and direction of the location of sulfur mining emerged sulfur fires, according to solfatara employees there had been an eruption at Crater lake air is considered a phreatic eruption. On January 14 the surface temperature of the crater lake in Dam reaches 48 ° C. In 2004 there was an increase in volcanic activity. Lake water temperature reaches 51oC, fumarola temperature reaches 240oC. pH 0.4. Seismic data received increased the number of volcanic earthquakes and continued tremors were also given. This increase in activity was not followed by an eruption. And the last and until now did not happen again in 2005. In August there was a copy of solfatara with a strong intensity to restore sulfur sublimation on the edge of the south-southeast crater base.


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